Grade 1: New 2015 Sex-Ed Curriculum

Here is the link to the Ontario Curriculum doc from which this section was pulled from: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/health1to8.pdf

grade1-healthy-living

Human Development and Sexual Health

C1.3 identify body parts, including genitalia (e.g., penis, testicles, vagina, vulva), using correct terminology [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “We talk about all body parts with respect. Why is it important to know about your own body, and use correct names for the parts of your body?”
  • Student: “All parts of my body are a part of me, and I need to know how to take care of and talk about my own body. If I’m hurt or need help, and I know the right words, other people will know what I’m talking about.”

C1.4 identify the five senses and describe how each functions

  • (e.g., sight: the eyes give the brain information about the world to help us see colours, shapes, and movement;
  • touch: receptors in the skin tell us how things feel – if they are hot, cold, wet, dry, hard, soft;
  • hearing: the ears pick up vibrations and send messages to the brain to help us hear sounds that are loud or soft, high- or low-pitched;
  • smell and taste: the tongue is covered with thousands of taste buds and the nose has tiny hairs and nerves that send messages to the brain about how things taste and smell) [PS]
  • Teacher prompt: “How do you use your senses as you explore outside in the natural world? If you close your eyes, what other senses can you use to get information about what is around you?”

C2.5 demonstrate an understanding of and apply proper hygienic procedures for protecting their own health and preventing the transmission of disease to others

  • (e.g., washing hands with soap, using a tissue, sleeve sneezing, brushing and flossing teeth, not sharing hats or hairbrushes) [PS]
  • Teacher prompt: “Why is it important to wash your hands before you eat and after you use the washroom?”
  • Student: “Washing your hands helps to stop germs from spreading. We should wash with warm water and soap for as long as it takes to say the alphabet.”

Personal Safety & Injury Prevention

C2.3 demonstrate the ability to recognize caring behaviours (e.g., listening with respect, giving positive reinforcement, being helpful) and exploitive behaviours (e.g., inappropriate touching, verbal or physical abuse, bullying), and describe the feelings associated with each [IS]

  • Teacher prompt: “Caring behaviours are found in healthy relationships. How might you feel in a healthy relationship?”
  • Student: “I might feel happy, safe, secure, cared for.”
  • Teacher: “How might you feel in a relationship that is not healthy?”
  • Student: “I might feel sad, scared, angry, confused, hurt.”
  • Teacher: “What are some situations in which you might feel that way?”
  • Student: “I might feel that way if someone was being mean or leaving me out, if someone was touching me when I didn’t want to be touched, or if I was left at home alone.”

C2.4 apply their knowledge of essential safety practices to take an active role in their own safety at school (e.g., inform teacher of allergies, be aware of food safety issues, play in supervised areas, follow safe routines for travelling to and from school) [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “What are some things that students may be allergic to?”
  • Student: “They may be allergic to nuts and other foods, bee stings, or medicine.”
  • Teacher: “What can we do to make the classroom as safe as possible?”
  • Student: “We should not bring anything that might have nuts in it to school. People with allergies who need to use medicine if they have a reaction should carry their medicine [epinephrine autoinjector] with them. We should know who has an allergy and what the signs of an allergic reaction are, and we should get an adult to help if someone is having a reaction.”

C3.1 demonstrate an understanding of how to stay safe and avoid injuries to themselves and others in a variety of situations, using knowledge about potential risks at home, in the community, and outdoors (e.g., items or situations that could lead to poisoning, slips, falls, fire, or injury, including injuries from household products, medicines, kitchen tools and equipment, insecure furniture, candles, toys; road, water, and playground hazards; weather and sun hazards) [PS, CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “What do you do to stay safe and avoid injuries at home and when you are outside?”
  • Student: “I wear a helmet when I ride my bike or go tobogganing. I wear sunscreen and a hat in the summer. I never swim alone. I only take medicine if my parents/caregivers give it to me.”
  • Teacher: “How do you cross the road safely?”
  • Student: “I cross where there is a traffic light or a crosswalk, or at a corner. I look carefully both ways to make sure no cars are coming before crossing. I make sure that the drivers can see me, and that I am not hidden by bushes or cars.”
  • Teacher: “What can you do to stay safe in the kitchen?” Student: “I make sure an adult is with me when I’m doing things in the kitchen. I do not use a knife or other sharp tools on my own, and I don’t touch cleaners and products that are marked with danger symbols.”

Substance Use, Addictions, and Related Behaviours

C3.2 identify habits and behaviours (e.g., excessive screen time or video game usage, smoking) that can be detrimental to health, and explain how people can be encouraged to adopt healthier alternatives [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “What are some behaviours that can be harmful to your health? What are some things you can do that are healthier or that protect your health and the health of other people?”
  • Student: “Spending too much time watching television or playing computer games keeps us from getting all the physical activity we need. We can play outside after school instead. Smoking is bad for you, and so is breathing smoke that is in the air when other people are smoking. We can ask people not to smoke around us. It is against the law for people to smoke in cars when there are children in the car.”

Healthy Eating

C1.1 explain why people need food to have healthy bodies (e.g., food provides energy for the healthy growth of teeth, skin, bones, muscles, and other body components

  • Teacher prompt: “Just as some toys need batteries to run, we need healthy foods to be active and to grow. How does eating a healthy breakfast every day help you learn?”
  • Student: “It gives me energy to help me stay alert and concentrate.”

C2.1 describe how the food groups in Canada’s Food Guide (i.e., vegetables and fruit, grain products, milk and alternatives, meat and alternatives) can be used to make healthy food choices [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “Canada’s Food Guide provides information that can help you make healthy food choices. What does the food guide tell you that can help you decide what foods to eat regularly and what foods to limit?”
  • Student: “The guide tells you what kinds of foods to eat and how much. There are four food groups, and we need to eat foods from all four groups.”
  • Teacher: “Can you tell me which foods we should eat every day, and which ones we should eat less often?”
  • Student: “We should eat fruits and vegetables every day. We should eat treats that are not in the food guide less often. Sometimes it is okay to have foods that are not in the guide – like candies, cookies, and sweet treats – but there are also lots of foods that are in the food guide – like berries and other fruits – that are great to have as treats.”

C2.2 know and recognize cues to hunger, thirst, and the feeling of fullness, and explain how they can use these cues to develop healthy eating habits [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “What does your body do to let you know you are hungry or thirsty?”
  • Student: “My stomach grumbles when I’m hungry and my mouth is dry when I’m thirsty. Sometimes I feel tired or grumpy.”
  • Teacher: “What should you do when this happens?”
  • Student: “I should try to have a snack or a drink when I feel hungry or thirsty.”
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Grade 2: New 2015 Sex-Ed Curriculum

Here is the link to the Ontario Curriculum doc from which this section was pulled from: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/health1to8.pdf

grade2-healthy-living

Human Development and Sexual Health

C1.4 outline the basic stages of human development (e.g., infant, child, adolescent, adult, older adult) and related bodily changes, and identify factors that are important for healthy growth and living throughout life [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “How does your body change as you grow? What helps you to grow and be healthy?”
  • Student: “As you grow, you get taller and bigger. Your bones grow. Your muscles grow. You grow faster at some stages than at others and not everyone grows the same amount at the same time. When you’re an adult, your body doesn’t grow anymore, but it still changes – for example, your skin gets more wrinkled and your hair might turn grey. Things that help make you healthy all through your life are eating well, being active, getting enough sleep, and having people to care for you.”
  • Teacher prompt: “When we look at growth and change throughout life, we can consider teachings from different cultures, including First Nation, Métis, and Inuit cultures, about the cycles of birth, life, and death. Different First Nations have different teachings and ceremonies for each life stage, and about growing and changes in roles and responsibilities at each stage. For example, the Anishinabe People teach about seven stages of life, and believe that at each stage, learning traditional teachings, such as the seven grandfather teachings, from family, community, and elders contributes to healthy growth and living.”

C2.4 demonstrate an understanding of and apply practices that contribute to the maintenance of good oral health (e.g., brushing, flossing, going to the dentist regularly for a checkup) [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “How should you care for your teeth when you lose a tooth?”
  • Student: “I should make sure my hands are clean when I touch my teeth and remember to brush the gap between the teeth.”
  • Teacher: “It is important to brush your teeth after eating, but if you can’t, what else can you do?”
  • Student: “I can rinse my mouth with water.”

Personal Safety and Injury Prevention

C1.1 demonstrate an understanding of practices that enhance personal safety in the home (e.g., observing precautions for answering the phone and door, establishing home fire escape strategies, respecting electrical outlet covers, following precautions for preparing and storing foods, washing hands) and outdoors (e.g., using UV protection; observing safety rules when riding the bus, riding a bicycle, walking to school, approaching railway tracks and crossings; carrying medication for allergic reactions; being cautious when approaching animals) [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “What are some things you should do to stay safe when you are at home, outside, or riding on the school bus?”
  • Students:
    • “At home, you should make sure that an adult always knows where you are when you’re playing outside. You should not touch any household product that has a symbol on it that means danger or poison. You should have a plan and know what to do in an emergency.”
    • “When you’re outside, you should wear a hat to protect you from the sun and a helmet when you’re riding your bike, tobogganing, or snowboarding.”
    • “You should sit facing the front of the school bus, and always cross the road in front of the bus when you get off. Don’t get so close to the bus that you can touch it. Get help from the driver or another adult if you drop something in the ‘danger zone’ – the area around the bus where the driver can’t see you.”
    • “If you have a nut allergy, tell your friends and their parents about it when you’re playing at their house. Make sure your snacks do not have nuts, and always carry an autoinjector.”
    • “If you want to come up to an animal or touch it, you have to ask permission from an adult and learn how to do it safely.”

C1.2 identify common food allergies and sensitivities (e.g., to peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, fish) and the reactions they might cause (e.g., swelling, skin rash, difficulty breathing, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, death)

  • Teacher prompt: “Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that can be life threatening. Food is the most common cause of anaphylaxis, but insect stings, medicine, latex, or exercise can also cause a reaction. What is the reason for our school policy that asks students not to bring nut products to school?”
  • Student: “A lot of people have allergies to nuts. If you have a nut allergy, you can have a very dangerous reaction if you eat or come into contact with nuts or something that is made with nuts.”

C2.3 explain the importance of standing up for themselves, and demonstrate the ability to apply behaviours that enhance their personal safety in threatening situations (e.g., speaking confidently; stating boundaries; saying no; respecting the right of a person to say no and encouraging others to respect that right also; reporting exploitive behaviours, such as improper touching of their bodies or others’ bodies) [PS, IS]

  • Teacher prompt: “What can standing up for yourself look like?”
  • Student: “You can hold your head up high, make eye contact, and speak strongly.” Teacher: “In some cultures, making eye contact is considered disrespectful. What can you do then?” Student: “You can stand up for yourself in other ways, by saying no in a polite but firm way, and not doing anything that makes you uncomfortable. You can also try to stay away from people or places where there may be trouble.”
  • Teacher: “Why is standing up for yourself and showing respect for others important in a friendship?”
  • Student: “It helps you when you can say what you think or what you need. Friends should listen to each other and show respect. When someone tells a person to stop, that person should stop. For example, if someone teases me about my allergy to nuts, I can tell them to stop and let them know that contact with nuts could make me stop breathing.”
  • Teacher: “If someone does something that you do not like, touches you in an inappropriate way, or asks to touch you in a way that makes you feel uncomfortable or confused, how can you stand up for yourself?”
  • Student: “I can say no and move away. My body is mine. I can tell someone – like a parent, a teacher, an elder, a doctor – that I need help. I can keep telling until I get help.”

C3.1 describe how to relate positively to others (e.g., cooperate, show respect, smile, manage anger, pay attention to what people say and to their facial expressions and body language), and describe behaviours that can be harmful in relating to others (e.g., verbal abuse, including both online and face-to-face name calling, insults, and mocking; deliberately ignoring someone, or ignoring the feelings they express; physical violence, including pushing, kicking, and hitting) [IS]

  • Teacher prompt: “What does being a good friend look like? How can you show that you’re a friend while working in groups?”
  • Student: “I can make sure to include everyone, be nice to anyone who wants to be my partner, share toys and equipment, be encouraging, keep my hands to myself, and speak nicely.”
  • Teacher: “Calling someone a name or leaving them out of a group because of how they learn, speak, or look are examples of abusing or mistreating someone with your words or behaviour. We are learning how to prevent and change this behaviour and also how to respond to this behaviour if it happens. What could you do to help in this kind of situation?”
  • Student: “I could make sure I don’t behave that way. If I saw someone else doing it, I could tell the person to stop, or get help from an adult. I could also be friendly to the person who is being treated badly.”

Substance Use, Addictions, and Related Behaviours

C1.3 describe the difference between prescription medicines and non-prescription medicines, giving examples of each, and identify rules for the proper use of all medicines

  • Teacher prompt: “Prescription medicines, such as penicillin and other antibiotics, are prescribed by a doctor and are available only at a pharmacy. How can you recognize a prescription medicine?”
  • Student: “On the label of the bottle, it has the name of the patient, instructions for using the medicine, and a prescription number.”
  • Teacher: “How are commonly used non-prescription medicines and health care supplements – for example, cough syrup; vitamins; herbal, homeopathic, and naturopathic remedies; and First Nation, Métis, and Inuit traditional medicines – different from prescription medicines?”
  • Student: “You don’t need a prescription from a doctor to get them. You can get them in places like health food stores and not just in pharmacies. Traditional First Nation, Métis, and Inuit medicines are usually made from things like plants that grow in the forest.”
  • Teacher: “What should we do to ensure that medicines are used safely and correctly?”
  • Student: “You should only take medicine that an adult who is caring for you gives you. You should never share prescription medicines. All instructions, like how much you should take and when you should take it, for all medicines should be followed carefully.”

C3.2 describe methods that may be used instead of or in combination with medication to maintain good health and prevent or treat various health problems (e.g., getting more sleep to help get rid of a cold; getting more fresh air and physical activity to relieve headaches; eating healthier meals as recommended in Canada’s Food Guide; using natural healing practices) [CT]

Healthy Eating

C2.1 use Canada’s Food Guide to assess the nutritional value of meals (e.g., in terms of food groups and number and size of servings), and identify food and beverage choices that enhance healthy growth and development

  • Teacher prompt: “Here is a picture of a school lunch. What food groups do you see in this lunch? Is this a healthy lunch? What might make it healthier?”
  • Student: “A healthy lunch has foods from different parts of the food guide. This lunch has rice from the grain products group, a piece of chicken from the meat and alternatives group, and carrots from the vegetables and fruit group. There are cookies for dessert. This is a healthy lunch. If there were also a piece of fruit, or yogurt from the milk and alternatives group, it would be even healthier.”

C2.2 demonstrate an understanding of how to make healthy food choices for meals and snacks, considering the factors they can and cannot control (e.g., the food that’s available in the home; the food that’s available when eating out; energy needed at different times of day; allergies; food guidelines associated with medical conditions such as diabetes or celiac disease; food safety related to food preparation, storage, handling, and cleanliness) [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “What are some things to consider when choosing a snack?”
  • Student: “A snack should give me energy and it should be safe and easy to eat. Snacks with less sugar – like fruit and vegetables – are better for my teeth. Also, some foods need to be kept cold to be safe to eat.”
  • Teacher: “What can you do if you are going to be somewhere where there are only a few healthy choices or none at all?”
  • Student: “I should try to make the healthiest choice I can, like having a salad instead of fries at a fast-food restaurant. Or I can go ahead and eat what is available, as long as I don’t do it regularly or too often. If I’m not too hungry, I can wait to eat something healthier later. I can try to bring a healthy snack from home next time, or if my school has a healthy snack program, I can have a snack at school.”

Grade 3: New 2015 Sex-Ed Curriculum

Here is the link to the Ontario Curriculum doc from which this section was pulled from: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/health1to8.pdf

grade3-healthy-living

Human Development and Sexual Health

C1.3 identify the characteristics of healthy relationships (e.g., accepting differences, being inclusive, communicating openly, listening, showing mutual respect and caring, being honest) and describe ways of overcoming challenges (e.g., bullying, exclusion, peer pressure, abuse) in a relationship [IS]

  • Teacher prompt: “Consider different types of relationships – with friends, siblings, parents, other adults – and think about the kinds of behaviour that help to make those relationships healthier. What can you do if you are having problems with a relationship?”
  • Student: “I can tell the person how I’m feeling, and we can try to work something out, or if we can’t solve the problem, we can just say we disagree. We could also try to get advice from someone else.”

 

C1.4 identify factors (e.g., sleep, food, physical activity, heredity, environment, support from a caring adult, sense of belonging, peer influence) that affect physical development (e.g., of hair, skin, teeth, body size and shape) and/or emotional development (e.g., of self-awareness, adaptive skills, social skills) [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “There are factors that affect your development that you can control and other factors that you cannot control. Can you give me examples of both types of factors?”
  • Student: “I can’t control my heredity, which affects my body size and shape. I can’t control my family situation, or my cultural background, or where I grow up. I can usually control how often I brush my teeth, what foods I choose to eat from those that are available, how I choose my friends, and some of the activities I do.”
  • Teacher: “Having a sense of belonging, of being accepted and understood, is important for emotional development. How can you show acceptance or understanding of students who may be different in some way – in shape and size, ability, background, family, or the way they do things – from others around them?”
  • Student: “I can stand up for someone who is being teased because they are different. I could try to learn more about people who do things differently than I do – such as learning about how some people who are deaf can talk using their hands, how some people with physical disabilities move with a wheelchair, or what someone who has a different religion from mine believes in.”

C3.3 describe how visible differences (e.g., skin, hair, and eye colour, facial features, body size and shape, physical aids or different physical abilities, clothing, possessions) and invisible differences (e.g., learning abilities, skills and talents, personal or cultural values and beliefs, gender identity, sexual orientation, family background, personal preferences, allergies and sensitivities) make each person unique, and identify ways of showing respect for differences in others [PS, IS]

  • Teacher prompt: “Sometimes we are different in ways you can see. Sometimes we are different in ways you cannot see – such as how we learn, what we think, and what we are able to do. Give me some examples of things that make each person unique.”
  • Student: “We all come from different families. Some students live with two parents. Some live with one parent. Some have two mothers or two fathers. Some live with grandparents or with caregivers. We may come from different cultures. We also have different talents and abilities and different things that we find difficult to do.”
  • Teacher: “How can you be a role model and show respect for differences in other people?”
  • Student: “I can include others in what I am doing, invite them to join a group, be willing to be a partner with anyone for an activity, and be willing to learn about others.”

Healthy Eating

C1.1 demonstrate an understanding of how the origins of food (e.g., where the food is grown, how it is made) affect its nutritional value and environmental impact [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “What is the difference between processed and unprocessed foods – for example, processed cheese and a wedge of cheese, toasted oat cereal and large-flake oatmeal, a fruit roll-up and an apple?”
  • Student: “Unprocessed foods are foods that are raw or the way they were before they were processed. Processed foods have been changed in some way to help preserve them or make them more convenient to use or easier to sell.”
  • Teacher: “Processed foods lose some of their nutrients when they are manufactured. How else are processed foods different from fresh foods in terms of nutrients? What is the environmental impact of processed foods?”
  • Student: “Fresh foods can be healthier to eat. Processed foods have more sugar, salt, trans fats, and other things added to improve the flavour or colour or to help preserve them. The way processed foods are made and the way they have to be shipped can make air pollution and other environmental problems worse. Manufacturing them can also make water pollution worse, and the packaging they come in creates extra garbage.”

C2.1 demonstrate an understanding of the importance of good oral health to overall health, and assess the effect of different food choices on oral health [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “Problems with teeth or gums can be painful, can make it difficult to eat, and can affect our appearance. Oral health problems can also contribute to health problems that affect other parts of the body, like the heart, lungs, and digestive system. We can keep our teeth healthy by brushing and flossing and going to the dentist for regular checkups. Being careful about what we eat can also help. What kinds of foods should you limit? What could you eat instead?”
  • Student: “I should limit the amount of sugary foods that I eat, especially those like sticky popcorn or candy apples that stick to your teeth. I can eat apples without the candy coating instead, or a piece of cheese, or vegetables such as carrots or radishes.”

C3.1 explain how local fresh foods and foods from different cultures (e.g., berries, curries, chapattis, lychees, kale, lentils, corn, nan, wild game, fish, tourtière) can be used to expand their range of healthy eating choices [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “Why is it a good idea to eat local fresh foods when they are available?”
  • Student: “They are usually more nutritious and taste better, and are better for the environment, because they don’t have to be shipped so far.” • •
  • Teacher prompt: “Look at these different versions of Canada’s Food Guide. This one is in English, these have been translated into different languages, and another is for First Nation, Métis, and Inuit users. What is the same about these guides? What is different about the food choices they recommend, and why are they still healthy choices?”
  • Student: “All of the guides show four food groups, but the foods in the groups are different. They are still healthy choices because they provide all of the nourishment that people need to stay healthy. The translated versions of the guides all show the same pictures, but the languages are different. All of the guides provide information about healthy choices for different cultures. The First Nation, Métis, and Inuit guide has some different information. The picture on the front shows the food groups as a part of a circle instead of a rainbow. It also shows some pictures of some First Nation, Métis, and Inuit foods, like berries, wild plants, bannock, and wild game, and includes healthy living tips that fit with the lives of First Nation, Métis, and Inuit people.”

Substance Use, Addictions, and Related Behaviours

C1.2 demonstrate an understanding of different types of legal and illegal substance abuse (e.g., dependency on nicotine in cigarettes or caffeine in coffee, energy drinks, and colas, or sugar and salt in sports drinks, or alcohol in beer, wine, and spirits) and the impacts of abusing these substances on themselves and others (e.g., dependencies or addictions, financial stresses, legal issues, health issues, environmental issues)

  • Teacher prompt: “When a family member is abusing alcohol, there is an impact on him or her, but there is also an impact on others. What impact does it have on others in the family?”
  • Student: “People who abuse alcohol may not be able to take good care of their families. They may miss important events, spend money on alcohol that is needed for other things, or get involved in arguments. Sometimes emotional or physical abuse happens in families if someone is abusing alcohol.”
  • Teacher: “Pop and sports drinks are not illegal substances, but consuming too much of them can still lead to problems. What problems might be associated with drinking too much of these kinds of drinks?”
  • Student: “Drinking too much of these drinks can give you more caffeine, sugar, or salt than is good for your body. Too much caffeine can make you jittery or too excited and may even make you addicted to caffeine. When you are addicted to caffeine, you sometimes get a headache when you do not have the caffeine. Too much sugar can lead to tooth decay. Too much salt makes your blood pressure go up and is not good for the heart. Also, you can get too full drinking these drinks and then not eat enough healthy foods.”

C2.3 apply decision-making strategies to make healthy choices about behaviours and the use of various substances in ways that could lead to dependencies, identifying factors that should be considered

  • (e.g., short-term use of medications can be helpful for an illness, but misuse of some medications could lead to dependency or harm; moderated television watching or computer use can provide healthy entertainment or new learning or be necessary to complete school work, but too much screen time can reinforce sedentary habits and inactivity, which can lead to social isolation and increased vulnerability to physical ailments;cultural teachings can provide guidance when considering the impact of using substances) [CT]
  • Teacher prompt: “What can you do to make healthier choices about substances or dependent behaviours?”
  • Student: “I need to think about what is healthy for me and what could be harmful and also what is legal and illegal. I can collect information and check facts about what I hear. I can find out where to get help if needed. I can pay attention to my choices and my behaviour and think about what needs to change. I can discuss things that are a problem with a friend or an adult and start looking for solutions.”

Personal Safety and Injury Prevention

C2.2 apply their understanding of good safety practices by developing safety guidelines for a variety of places and situations outside the classroom

  • (e.g., guidelines for water safety; safe routes and practices for going to school; home fire safety and emergency plans; safe camping checklists; guidelines for safe Internet use; guidelines for personal hygiene and the prevention of infectious diseases; wildlife safety precautions; guidelines for managing allergies; Halloween safety practices; rules for behaviour around guide dogs, other service animals, and animals in general) [CT]
  • Teacher prompt: “What are some examples of how you might prepare yourself or your family to respond in an emergency – like a fall into deep water or a house fire?”
  • Student: “In an emergency, it helps to have a plan. To prepare for an emergency around water, I could learn basic swimming skills, such as finding the surface, supporting myself at the surface, and swimming a short distance. I could also learn about basic boating safety rules, such as wearing a personal flotation device whenever I’m in a boat and staying with the boat if it overturns. To prepare for a home emergency like a fire, I could help make a family escape plan that we could use in case of fire, with escape routes and meeting places.”
  • Teacher prompt: “How do you stay safe when walking to school?”
  • Student: “I am careful when going by driveways and parking lots. I make eye contact with drivers before crossing the road, so that I know they have seen me. I walk with someone else.”

C3.2 explain how the portrayal of fictional violence in various media (e.g., television dramas, video games, Internet, movies) can create an unrealistic view of the consequences of real violence (e.g., physical trauma, chronic disability, family stress, death) [IS]

  • Teacher prompt: “Watching violence in movies, in video games, and on television might make you think that violent behaviour is normal or acceptable. How is violence in a cartoon different from real life?”
  • Student: “In a cartoon, characters aren’t really hurt. If they are badly hurt in one scene, they may suddenly be all right in the next. In real life, a person involved in violence can be seriously hurt, physically and emotionally.”
  • Teacher: “Why is play fighting not a good idea?”
  • Student: “Nobody intends to hurt anybody in a play fight, but someone may get hurt accidentally. If the person who gets hurt gets angry, then the play fighting can turn into real fighting.”

Grade 4: New 2015 Sex-Ed Curriculum

Here is the link to the Ontario Curriculum doc from which this section was pulled from: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/health1to8.pdf

grade4-healthy-living

Human Development and Sexual Health

C1.5 describe the physical changes that occur in males and females at puberty (e.g., growth of body hair, breast development, changes in voice and body size, production of body odour, skin changes) and the emotional and social impacts that may result from these changes [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “During puberty, the male and female bodies undergo many changes. Everyone experiences these changes at different rates and at different times. Increases in weight and body fat are normal. Sometimes it is difficult getting used to the changes that are happening so quickly. Feelings can be much more intense. What are some of the feelings you might have as you start to experience changes with puberty?”
  • Student: “Excitement, happiness, embarrassment, confusion, and fear are some of the feelings I might have. It is sometimes hard to recognize what I am feeling and why things feel different.” • • • • •
  • Teacher prompt: “What can change socially as you start to develop physically?”
  • Student: “Relationships with friends can change, because sometimes people start being interested in different things at different times. Some people start ‘liking’ others. They want to be more than ‘just friends’ and become interested in going out. Sometimes people treat you as if you are older than you actually are because of how you look. Sometimes classmates, friends, or family make comments or tease you about the changes.”
  • Teacher prompt: “Some cultures have traditions associated with puberty that mark the transition from childhood to adulthood. Can you give me some examples of these?”
  • Student: “In Judaism, a bar mitzvah or bat mitzvah is celebrated at age thirteen, when a boy or girl comes of age, according to religious law, and can now participate as an adult in the religious life of the community. Many Aboriginal societies have rites of passage that signal that adolescent boys and girls are ready to take on adult roles in society.”

C2.4 demonstrate an understanding of personal care needs and the application of personal hygienic practices associated with the onset of puberty

  • (e.g., increased importance of regular bathing/showering and regular clothing changes; use of hygiene products; continuing importance of regular hygiene practices, including hand washing, oral health care, and care of prosthetic devices and residual limbs) [PS]
  • Teacher prompt: “Why is it important to shower and change clothes more often as you approach puberty? What other things do you need to think about?”
  • Student: “As our bodies change, we perspire more. We should also be aware of spreading germs, and avoid sharing hats, lip gloss, hairbrushes, drinks, or towels.”

Healthy Eating

C1.1 identify the key nutrients (e.g., fat, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, minerals) provided by foods and beverages, and describe their importance for growth, health, learning, and physical performance

  • Teacher prompt: “Report what you found from your research about nutrients.”
  • Student: “You can get calcium, which is important for healthy bones and teeth, by drinking milk or a fortified soy beverage and eating dairy products like yogurt and cheese.“Grains are a good source of carbohydrates and fibre. Carbohydrates give you energy. Fibre-rich foods help you feel full and satisfied, help your bowels function normally, and help reduce the risk of heart disease later in life. Grain products that are lower in fat, sugar, and salt are best. At least half of the grain products we eat each day should be whole grain, like oatmeal or whole-wheat pasta, because whole grains have more fibre. “All vegetables and fruits have important nutrients like vitamins, minerals, and fibre. Eating dark green and orange vegetables whenever you can is beneficial. Dark green vegetables have lots of folate and orange vegetables have lots of vitamin A. Folate is especially important during times of rapid growth (infancy and pregnancy), and vitamin A plays a key role in vision.”

C2.1 analyse personal food selections through self-monitoring over time, using the criteria in Canada’s Food Guide (e.g., food groups, portion size, serving size), and develop a simple healthy eating goal appropriate to their age and activity level (e.g., eat breakfast every day; include at least one fruit or vegetable at each meal and snack; help with food shopping and meal preparation at home; plan a meal using the First Nation, Inuit, and Métis food guide) [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “When making food choices, how do you know how much food you need?”
  • Student: “Canada’s Food Guide tells us how many servings we need in each food group and how big each serving should be. For example, one serving of grain products could be one slice of bread, half a pita, or half a cup (about a handful) of cooked rice.”
  • Teacher prompt: “When setting your healthy-eating goal, what do you need to do to ensure you accomplish your goal?”
  • Student: “I need to keep track of where I start and how I am doing. I need to have a plan. I can help to accomplish my goal by talking with my family about healthy eating, learning how to cook simple meals, and helping with making my lunch.”
  • Teacher prompt: “Being aware of your eating habits is important. As a Grade 4 student, you don’t always have control over what you eat, but you can do your best to make the best choices from what is available. For example, if you have a choice between pop or milk, you could choose milk. Instead of fries, you could choose a baked potato or brown rice, if they were available. Describe something you have eaten recently and identify a healthier alternative.”
  • Student: “I ate a sandwich with mayonnaise, margarine, mustard, and bologna on white bread. A healthier choice would have been a sandwich on whole wheat bread or a pita wrap, with either mayonnaise, margarine, or mustard instead of all three of these. Adding vegetables like tomatoes, lettuce, bean sprouts, or cucumbers to my sandwich and having an unprocessed meat such as chicken breast or a bean/chickpea spread instead of bologna would also be healthier. Another healthier choice might be to eat something completely different, such as rice and fish.”

C3.1 identify ways of promoting healthier food choices in a variety of settings and situations (e.g., school, arena, recreation centre, stores, food courts, special events; when camping, having a snack or meal at a friend’s house, eating on weekends versus weekdays) [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “Our school is a healthy school, and we have a breakfast program and a snack program. How do these programs affect people’s food choices? How can the programs promote healthier food choices?”
  • Student: “The programs give us more healthy foods to choose from. They give all the students a chance to try different kinds of healthy foods that they might not otherwise be able to try.”
  • Teacher: “If you had to go directly to a lesson or practice after school, what could you plan for a snack that would be healthy and give you sustained energy?”
  • Student: “If I planned ahead, I could bring a healthy snack like yogurt or a piece of cheese and fruit or cut-up vegetables. If I buy a snack, I need to think about what would be the healthiest choice from what is available.”
  • Teacher: “What can you do to promote the availability of healthier food choices in community settings?”
  • Student: “I can ask for healthier choices – for veggie dogs at the arena, for example, instead of just regular hot dogs. If people keep asking for healthier choices, businesses might start to sell them.”
  • Teacher: “What kinds of things might you consider before inviting a friend to your home for a meal or a sleepover?”
  • Student: “I would ask if my friend has any food allergies or cannot eat certain foods for religious or cultural reasons and make sure my parents know about these.”

Personal Safety and Injury Prevention

C1.2 identify risks associated with communications technology (e.g., Internet and cell phone use, including participation in gaming and online communities and the use of text messaging), and describe precautions and strategies for using these technologies safely [IS]

  • Teacher prompt: “Advances in technology have greatly increased our ability to get and share information and to communicate and collaborate with each other. But these benefits also come with some risks and potential difficulties, such as a possible loss of privacy, addiction, increased sedentary behaviour, or exposure to people who ask you for sexual pictures or want you to share personal information. What are some things you should do to use this technology safely? How can you get help if you get into trouble?”
  • Student: “I should make sure that an adult knows what I am doing when I’m using the computer, the Internet, or a cell phone, so I have someone who can help if needed. When I can, I should use a computer in a public space like a kitchen, living room, or library, instead of alone in my bedroom. I shouldn’t share my password or personal information. I should be aware that people are not always who they say they are online. I should close and delete pop-ups and spam messages without responding. If there’s a problem, I should stop right away and tell an adult instead of trying to solve the problem online. I should help my friends by reminding them of these tips.”

C1.3 describe various types of bullying and abuse (e.g., social, physical, verbal), including bullying using technology (e.g., via e-mail, text messaging, chat rooms, websites), and identify appropriate ways of responding [IS]

  • Teacher prompt: “What is an example of social bullying? Physical bullying? Verbal bullying?”
  • Student: “Social bullying could include leaving someone out of the group, refusing to be someone’s partner, spreading rumours in person or online, or totally ignoring someone. Physical bullying could include pushing someone, pulling hair, or knocking a person down. Verbal bullying could include name calling, mocking, teasing about appearance, including weight, size, or clothing, and making sexist, racist, or homophobic comments in person or online. Any of these kinds of bullying could cause emotional pain.”
  • Teacher prompt: “Is it common for girls and boys to bully in different ways? Is one type of bullying any more or less hurtful than another?”
  • Student: “It might be more common for boys to bully physically or for girls to bully socially by spreading rumours or leaving people out, but that’s not always true. Social or emotional bullying is more difficult to see but it can be just as hurtful.”
  • Teacher prompt: “In cases of abuse, it is not uncommon for the person being abused to know the person who is abusing them. If a friend told you that she had a secret and that she was being abused, how could you help?”
  • Student: “I would tell my friend to ask an adult that she trusts so that she can get help. I would listen and be there to support my friend.”
  • Teacher prompt: “If you are a bystander and you see bullying online, what can you do?”
  • Student: “I can stand up for the person. I can tell the person being bullied to get offline and try to help them get help. I can tell an adult I trust.”

C2.2 apply a decision-making process (e.g., identify potential dangers and risks, consider ways to stay safe, consider the pros and cons of each option, consider whether they need to check with an adult, choose the safest option, act, reflect on their decision, consider whether there is anything they could improve for next time) to assess risks and make safe decisions in a variety of situations (e.g., when using a wheelchair, cycling, preparing food) [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “What safety considerations do you need to think about when you make a snack after school?”
  • Student: “I need to think about whether food that needs refrigeration has been kept cold and whether my hands, work surfaces, and utensils are clean. I also need to be sure that I know how to use the appliances and utensils safely.”
  • Teacher prompt: “Before riding your bike to school, what do you need to think about and what do you need to do to be safe?”
  • Student: “I should think about what I need to have and how to stay safe. Do I have a helmet that fits right and that’s properly fastened? Do I need to take any precautions because of the weather? What routes can I take, and how much traffic is there on them? How will I carry my books and lunch? Will I be riding with anyone else, and should we ride side by side or in a line? What is my plan if there is a problem, like a crash, or if something breaks on my bike?”

Substance Use, Addictions, and Related Behaviours

C1.4 identify substances (e.g., nicotine, carbon monoxide, tar) found in tobacco products and smoke (e.g., cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, snuff), and describe their effects on health

  • Teacher prompt: “What are the dangers of nicotine? What are the dangers of tar?”
  • Student: “Nicotine is very addictive and is absorbed quickly in your body. The craving for nicotine can make a person very uncomfortable, and that can be stressful. Tar is made up of thousands of chemicals. Many of these chemicals can cause cancer and other illnesses.”

C2.3 demonstrate the ability to make and support healthy, informed choices about smoking, using their understanding of factors that affect decisions about smoking and a variety of personal and interpersonal skills and thinking processes

  • (e.g., applying decision-making, assertiveness, and refusal skills; thinking in advance about values and personal choices; identifying the pros and cons of both making a change and not making a change; being aware of peer pressure; avoiding situations where people will be smoking; using conversational strategies, such as saying no strongly and clearly, giving reasons, changing the topic, making a joke, asking a question) [CT]
  • Teacher prompt: “Although the number of young people smoking is declining, some still choose to smoke. What are some examples of things that might influence someone to smoke or not to smoke?”
  • Student: “Kids might be more likely to try smoking if their friends and family members smoke, or if someone dares them to smoke, or if it is easy for them to get cigarettes. They might be less likely to try smoking if they are not old enough to buy cigarettes legally so cigarettes are harder to get or if they know someone who got cancer or emphysema because of smoking.”
  • Teacher prompt: “How is tobacco used traditionally in First Nation and Métis societies? What is the difference between the spiritual or sacred use of tobacco in First Nation and Métis culture and the commercial use of tobacco?”
  • Student: “Among the First Nations and the Métis, tobacco is often used in small amounts in ceremonies connected to cleansing and communicating with the spirit world. In these cultures tobacco is one of the four sacred medicines (natural tobacco, cedar, sage, and sweetgrass). In its original form, tobacco had a spiritual purpose. The tobacco used in cigarettes and cigars is harmful to our health and not connected to spirituality.”

C3.2 describe the short- and long-term effects of first- and second-hand smoke on smokers and on people around them

  • Teacher prompt: “What are some effects of smoking?”
  • Student: “Some of the short-term effects can include bad breath and bad clothing and hair odours, and possibly some problems with family and friends, like arguments with parents. Young people who smoke are more likely to be less active, hang out with other kids who smoke, try other drugs, and not do as well at school. Longer-term effects can include addiction, yellow teeth, getting out of breath easily, reduced energy and activity levels, respiratory diseases, and lung or oral cancer. Second-hand smoke makes the air unpleasant to breathe and makes clothing smell. Over the long term, exposure to secondhand smoke increases a person’s risk of getting lung cancer or other respiratory diseases.”

Grade 5: New 2015 Sex-Ed Curriculum

Here is the link to the Ontario Curriculum doc from which this section was pulled from: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/health1to8.pdf

grade5-healthy-living

Human Development and Sexual Health

C1.3 identify the parts of the reproductive system, and describe how the body changes during puberty [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “Female body parts that mature and develop as a part of puberty include the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, endometrium, and clitoris. Male body parts that mature and develop during puberty include the penis (with or without the foreskin), scrotum, urethra, testicles, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and vas deferens. These changes occur as people become capable of reproduction. What are some physical changes that happen during puberty?”
  • Student: “During puberty, girls will develop breasts and get their periods for the first time. An increase in weight and body fat is normal. Boys will become more muscular, get deeper voices, and grow facial and body hair. The penis and testicles will grow larger. Both boys and girls will grow hair under their arms, on their legs, and in their pubic area. The rate at which these changes occur will vary for each individual.”

C1.4 describe the processes of menstruation and spermatogenesis, and explain how these processes relate to reproduction and overall development

  • Teacher prompt: “Menstruation is the medical term for having a ‘period’ and is the monthly flow of blood from the uterus. This begins at puberty. Not all girls begin menstruation at the same age. Generally, every month, an egg leaves one of the ovaries and travels down one of the fallopian tubes towards the uterus. In preparation, the walls of the uterus develop a lining of extra blood and tissue to act as a cushion for the egg in case fertilization occurs. When an egg is fertilized, it attaches itself to the lining of the uterus and begins to develop into a baby. If fertilization does not occur, the lining of the uterus is no longer needed and is discharged through the vagina. This is the monthly flow of blood. The whole process is called the menstrual cycle. Can you summarize its purpose?”
  • Student: “It is how the female body gets ready for pregnancy.”
  • Teacher: “The testicles are glands within the scrotum that produce sperm and hormones, beginning at puberty. After sperm develops in the testicles, it can travel through the epididymis until it reaches the vas deferens where it is stored until ejaculation occurs. During ejaculation, the prostate gland releases a liquid that mixes with the sperm from the vas deferens to make semen, which then leaves the body through the urethra. Fertilization can occur when the penis is in the vagina, sperm is ejaculated, and the sperm and egg connect. Babies can also be conceived by having the sperm and egg connect using assisted reproductive technologies. What is the purpose of sperm production?”
  • Student: “Sperm is needed for fertilization. When the sperm from the male and the egg from the female join together, pregnancy occurs.”
  • Teacher: “We’ve described what menstruation and spermatogenesis mean from a physical point of view. How do these changes affect you in other ways?”
  • Student: “Not everyone experiences these changes at the same time and in the same way, so teasing people about these changes isn’t right. It can be very hurtful.” “In my culture and my family, becoming an adult is a cause for celebration.” “We don’t talk about it in my family. What I see in the media and online is a bit confusing, so it’s good to know what these changes in my body actually mean. The more I know, the better I can take care of myself.”

C2.4 describe emotional and interpersonal stresses related to puberty (e.g., questions about changing bodies and feelings, adjusting to changing relationships, crushes and more intense feelings, conflicts between personal desires and cultural teachings and practices), and identify strategies that they can apply to manage stress, build resilience, and enhance their mental health and emotional well-being

  • (e.g., being active, writing feelings in a journal, accessing information about their concerns, taking action on a concern, talking to a trusted peer or adult, breathing deeply, meditating, seeking cultural advice from elders) [PS]
  • Teacher prompt: “Think about some things that could lead to stress for adolescents. For example, as they grow, people sometimes feel self-conscious about their bodies, but we all grow at different rates and you can’t control how fast you grow. When you think about how to respond to stress, consider what is within your control and what is not.”
  • Student: “Things I can control include whether I have a positive or negative attitude about things, how I show respect for myself and others, whether I ask for help when I need it, whether I am involved in activities at school and in my community, actions I take, whether I am open to new ideas, and whether I make my own decisions about

Personal Safety and Injury Prevention

C1.1 identify people (e.g., parents, guardians, neighbours, teachers, crossing guards, police, older students, coaches, elders) and supportive services (e.g., help lines, 9-1-1, Telehealth, public health units, student services) that can assist with injury prevention, emergencies, bullying, and abusive and violent situations [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “If you are being bullied or you know of someone being bullied, to whom can you turn for help?” Student: “I can turn to any adult I trust – a parent, a teacher, a coach, or an elder. I need to continue to ask for help until I get the help I need.” Teacher: “What should you do in a situation in which someone is being violent?”
  • Student: “Get out of the way, get help, and do not try to intervene directly.”

C2.2 demonstrate the ability to deal with threatening situations by applying appropriate living skills (e.g., personal skills, including self-monitoring and anger management; interpersonal skills, including conflict resolution skills; communication skills, including assertiveness and refusal skills) and safety strategies

(e.g., having a plan and thinking before acting; looking confident; being aware of their surroundings and of people’s body language, tone of voice, or facial expressions; seeking help; drawing on cultural teachings, where appropriate, to analyse situations and develop responses) [PS, IS, CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “What strategies could you use in a situation where you were being harassed because of your sex, gender identity, race, religion, sexual orientation, gender expression, body shape, weight, or ability?”
  • Student: “Different situations may require different strategies. Sometimes it is best to be assertive and stand up to the person who is harassing by speaking confidently. If you feel threatened, it is safer to avoid confrontation by ignoring the person, making an excuse and walking away, or getting help.”
  • Teacher prompt: “As a bystander, what could you do to help if a friend tells you about a situation where he or she is feeling bullied or unsafe?”
  • Student: “I can listen to my friend and talk about ways we can stand up for ourselves when someone is bullying us. I can stand up for my friend if I am there when it happens, or I can get help by telling an adult.”
  • Teacher prompt: “How might the medicine wheel concept, which is used in some First Nation teachings, help you to consider strategies for personal safety?”
  • Student: “The four elements of the medicine wheel can help me think about my safety and well-being in terms of my physical, emotional, spiritual, and mental health.”

C3.2 explain how a person’s actions, either in person or online, can affect their own and others’ feelings, self-concept, emotional well-being, and reputation

(e.g., negative actions such as name calling, making homophobic or racist remarks, mocking appearance or ability, excluding, bullying, sexual harassment [including online activities such as making sexual comments, sharing sexual pictures, or asking for such pictures to be sent]; positive actions such as praising, supporting, including, and advocating) [PS, IS]

  • Teacher prompt: “Negative actions that hurt the feelings of others can also result in stigma. When someone appears to be different from us, whether it is because of something visible like a physical disability or something less visible like having an illness such as HIV/AIDS or a mental health problem like depression, we may view him or her in a stereotyped manner and make assumptions. Stereotypes can have a strong, negative impact on someone’s self-concept and well-being. On the other hand, you can also make a big difference in a positive way with your actions. Give an example of an action that can affect someone’s feelings, self-concept, or reputation in a positive way.”
  • Student: “Actions that can have a positive effect include asking someone who has been left out to be a partner, praising someone for their accomplishments, recognizing someone’s talent or skill, and making sure everyone gets a turn.”
  • Teacher: “How do your actions – positive or negative – have an impact on your own self-concept and reputation?”
  • Student: “Having a positive attitude towards other people can make you feel good about yourself. It can also make people want to be around you. Always being negative or putting other people down reflects badly on you and can make you feel worse about yourself.”

Substance Use, Addictions, and Related Behaviours

C1.2 describe the short- and long-term effects of alcohol use, and identify factors that can affect intoxication (e.g., amount consumed, speed of consumption, sex, body size, combinations with other drugs or food, emotional state)

  • Teacher prompt: “Drinking even a small amount of alcohol can affect your body. The more you drink, the greater the effects. What are the short-term effects of alcohol use?”
  • Student: “Short-term effects can include relaxation but also reduced coordination, higher body temperature, slower reflexes, drowsiness, lowered inhibitions, slurred speech, and problems making good decisions. Becoming drunk, or intoxicated, could lead to vomiting, loss of consciousness, or even alcohol poisoning. If any of these things happen, medical attention is needed.”
  • Teacher: “What long-term consequences can result from alcohol abuse?”
  • Student: “Addiction, liver damage, financial problems, family or relationship issues, and emotional and mental problems are some of the possible consequences of long-term alcohol abuse.”

C2.3 demonstrate the ability to apply decision-making, assertiveness, and refusal skills to deal with pressures pertaining to alcohol use or other behaviours that could later lead to addiction (e.g., smoking, drug use, gambling) [IS]

  • Teacher prompt: “What might you do if someone is pressuring you to try alcohol or a cigarette?”
  • Student: “I can try to avoid situations where I might be offered alcohol or cigarettes. If I can’t, I can say strongly and clearly that I do not want to participate. I can also mention problems that I’d rather avoid, like bad breath, disease, and impairment – or I can just make a joke and change the subject.”

C3.3 identify personal and social factors (e.g., emotional, physical, mental, spiritual, cultural, legal, media, and peer influences) that can affect a person’s decision to drink alcohol at different points in his or her life [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “How realistic are the messages that we get from the media about drinking alcohol?”
  • Student: “On television, you see people having fun, being sociable, and doing cool things while drinking. You do not often see images in the media of someone who has passed out or who has caused a car crash or who is in an abusive relationship because of alcohol.”
  • Teacher prompt: “Some adults choose to drink alcohol in social settings or during celebrations. How is this different from a teen drinking alcohol?”
  • Student: “It is legal for adults to drink alcohol. Drinking in moderation, avoiding getting drunk, and following the law about drinking and driving are some of the responsibilities that adults who choose to drink alcohol have to accept.”

Healthy Eating

C2.1 explain how to use nutrition facts tables and ingredient lists on food labels to make healthier personal food choices [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “Food labels contain a lot of information, including the product name, product claims, an ingredient list, and a nutrition facts table, which identifies the nutrients in the product, the number of calories per serving, the serving size, and other information, such as the amount of trans fats. How can you use this information to evaluate food choices?”
  • Student: “I can check the nutrition facts table to see how much fat, sugar, and salt is in the product. Foods with less saturated fat, trans fats, salt, and sugar are better than those with more. However, growing bodies do need a certain amount of fat for healthy growth. Foods with more nutrients like fibre and vitamins A and C are healthier than those with smaller amounts of these nutrients. I can use this knowledge to help me make healthier food choices at home and to help my family make healthier choices when we go shopping – for example, by choosing 100 per cent fruit juice instead of fruit-flavoured drinks. I can also use similar information about the ingredients in food at restaurants and fast-food places, if it is available.”

C3.1 describe how advertising and media influences affect food choices (e.g., TV commercials, product packaging, celebrity endorsements, product placements in movies and programs, idealized body images in movies and programs, magazine articles promoting fad diets), and explain how these influences can be evaluated to make healthier choices

(e.g., critically examining the reasons for celebrity endorsements or the plausibility of product claims, checking whether there is information in the advertisement that verifies the claims, asking for information about product ingredients and nutrients, critically examining the reality and healthiness of idealized body images in the media, evaluating diet plans against accepted nutritional criteria such as those used in Canada’s Food Guide) [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “What might you think about when you see a professional athlete drinking an energy drink in a commercial?”
  • Student: “The advertisement is trying to influence me to buy the drink. But just because the ad says a professional athlete drinks it does not mean that it is healthy for me or that I need to drink it when I am being active.”

Grade 6: New 2015 Sex-Ed Curriculum

Here is the link to the Ontario Curriculum doc from which this section was pulled from: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/health1to8.pdf

grade6-healthy-living

Human Development and Sexual Health

C1.3 identify factors that affect the development of a person’s self-concept

  • (e.g., environment, evaluations by others who are important to them, stereotypes, awareness of strengths and needs, social competencies, cultural and gender identity, support, body image, mental health and emotional well-being, physical abilities) [PS]
  • Teacher prompt: “A person’s self-concept and emotional health and well-being can be affected by a number of factors. Some of these are external factors – they come from outside ourselves. Others are internal factors – they come from within ourselves. Can you give me examples of external and internal factors that are protective – things that help a person develop a positive self-concept and improve their emotional well-being?”
  • Student: “Protective external factors include having support from family and caring adults, having a safe place to live, and being involved in activities that make you feel proud of what you’ve accomplished. Protective internal factors include having a sense of purpose in life, being able to attain and sustain a clear sense of who you are, feeling that you have the right and are capable of taking steps to make things better, having clear boundaries, being optimistic, having high expectations of yourself, and having the skills you need to solve problems.”

C2.5 describe how they can build confidence and lay a foundation for healthy relationships by acquiring a clearer understanding of the physical, social, and emotional changes that occur during adolescence

  • (e.g., physical: voice changes, skin changes, body growth; social: changing social relationships, increasing influence of peers; emotional: increased intensity of feelings, new interest in relationships with boys or girls, confusion and questions about changes)
  • [PS] Teacher prompt: “By getting questions answered and understanding that questions and changes are ‘normal’, adolescents will be better equipped to understand themselves, relate to others, respond to challenges and changes in relationships, and build confidence. What are some questions that young people might have as changes happen during puberty and adolescence?”
  • Student: “Is how I am feeling normal? Why is my body different from everybody else’s? How do you tell someone you like them? Who can answer my questions about…?”
  • Teacher prompt: “Things like wet dreams or vaginal lubrication are normal and happen as a result of physical changes with puberty. Exploring one’s body by touching or masturbating is something that many people do and find pleasurable. It is common and is not harmful and is one way of learning about your body.”

 

C2.6 make informed decisions that demonstrate respect for themselves and others and help to build healthier relationships, using a variety of living skills

  • (e.g., personal and interpersonal skills; critical and creative thinking skills; skills based on First Nation, Métis, and Inuit cultural teachings, such as medicine wheel teachings connected to the four colour or seven grandfather teachings, or other cultural teachings) [IS, CT]
  • Teacher prompt: “In many ways, dating relationships can be similar to other relationships, such as those with friends or family. Relationships we see online or in the media are not always accurate and can send false messages. What are some of the signs of a healthy relationship, and what are some signs of potential trouble?
  • Student: “In a healthy relationship, people show respect and care for each other. They try to communicate well and are honest with each other. Jealousy or behaviour that is too controlling can be signs of trouble.”
  • Teacher: “How does knowing yourself help you to make healthy decisions when you are in a relationship?”
  • Student: “Being clear about your own values, priorities, strengths, and needs can help you separate what is important to you from what is not. Knowing yourself well can help you see what you need to work on to make the relationship better.”
  • Teacher: “What communication skills can help you send information, receive information, and interpret information in an effective way in a relationship?”
  • Student: “Being respectful but clear about your ideas and feelings; listening actively; interpreting body language, tone of voice, and facial expressions; respecting signals of agreement or disagreement and consent or lack of consent; and negotiating – all these are important skills. A clear “yes” is a signal of consent. A response of ”no”, an uncertain response, or silence needs to be understood as no consent.”
  • Teacher: “What social attitudes and behaviours are important in building a healthy relationship?”
  • Student: “It is important to have respect for others, show that you value differences, and be cooperative.”
  • Teacher: “What should you consider when making any decision regarding a relationship?”
  • Student: “My comfort level, my personal and family values, my personal limits, and the limits and comfort of others are some of the things I should consider.”
  • Teacher: “Changing or ending relationships can be difficult. What are some ways to deal positively with changing or ending relationships?”
  • Student: “Talk about how you feel with someone you trust. Think about what you can learn from the situation that you can apply in the future. Remember that although the hurt feelings can be very intense at the beginning, you will start feeling a little better over time. If you are the one ending the relationship, treat the other person with respect and consider how they may be feeling. Try to explain how you feel. Ending a relationship over the phone or online may not be a sensitive approach.

C3.3 assess the effects of stereotypes, including homophobia and assumptions regarding gender roles and expectations, sexual orientation, gender expression, race, ethnicity or culture, mental health, and abilities, on an individual’s self-concept, social inclusion, and relationships with others, and propose appropriate ways of responding to and changing assumptions and stereotypes [PS, CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “Can you give examples of some stereotypes that might have a negative effect on a person’s self-concept and social inclusion? What can we do to change stereotypes and discrimination?”
  • Student: “People who are overweight are sometimes labelled as lazy. That’s not fair. And it’s not fair to make assumptions about what people with disabilities are able to do. We need to base our opinions of people on who they are and what they do and not judge them by their appearance or make assumptions about them. There are also negative stereotypes about people who receive extra help or people who receive good marks in class. These can be hurtful and cause people to avoid getting help when they need it or, sometimes, to hide their abilities. Someone who has a mental illness like depression or an anxiety disorder may be seen as being different. We need to remember that mental illness can affect anyone, and it can be treated. Cultural stereotypes are also common. Sometimes people make assumptions that people from a certain cultural background all like the same things or are all good at the same things. That makes us misjudge them. To change stereotypes, we need to get to know people and respond to them as individuals. We need to challenge stereotypes when we hear them.” • • • • •
  • Teacher prompt: “Assumptions are often made about what is ‘normal’ or expected for males and females – for example, men take out the garbage; nursing is a woman’s job; boys play soccer at recess and girls skip rope or stand around and talk; boys are good at weightlifting and girls are good at dancing. Assumptions like these are usually untrue, and they can be harmful. They can make people who do not fit into the expected norms feel confused or bad about themselves, damaging their self-concept, and they can cause people to discriminate against and exclude those who are seen as ‘different’. Assumptions about different sexual orientations or about people with learning disabilities or mental illness or about people from other cultures are harmful in similar ways. Everyone needs to feel accepted in school and in the community. Why do you think these stereotyped assumptions occur? What can be done to change or challenge them?”
  • Students: “Stereotypes are usually formed when we do not have enough information. We can get rid of a lot of stereotypes just by finding out more about people who seem different. By being open-minded, observing and listening, asking questions, getting more information, and considering different perspectives, we can work to change stereotypes.
    • We can understand people’s sexual orientations better, for example, by reading books that describe various types of families and relationships.
    • Families: Not everyone has a mother and a father – someone might have two mothers or two fathers (or just one parent or a grandparent, a caregiver, or a guardian).
    • Inclusive Language: We need to make sure that we don’t assume that all couples are of the opposite sex, and show this by the words we use. For example, we could use a word like ‘partner’ instead of ‘husband’ or ‘wife’.
    • We need to be inclusive and welcoming.” “If we have newcomers from another country in our class, we can try to find out more about them, their culture, and their interests.”
    • “If we hear things that are sexist, homophobic, or racist, we can show our support for those who are being disrespected.”
    • “If we hear someone using words like ‘crazy’ or ‘nuts’ to describe a person who has a mental illness, we can explain that mental illness is no different from other illnesses, and that we wouldn’t call someone names if they were suffering from any other illness.”

Substance Use, Addictions, and Related Behaviours

C1.1 describe the range of effects associated with using cannabis and other illicit drugs (e.g., crack, cocaine, Ecstasy, crystal methamphetamine) and intoxicating substances (e.g., gas, glue, prescription medications)

  • Teacher prompt: “Different types of drugs can have very different effects on your body, depending on whether they are stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, or psychiatric drugs. Cannabis is a commonly used illicit drug. The effect of cannabis on your body depends on a number of things: how much you use, how often and how long you use it, whether you smoke it or swallow it, your mood, your environment, your age, whether you’ve taken other drugs, and your medical condition. What are some possible effects of using cannabis?”
  • Student: “Cannabis can change the way you see and feel things – distances can seem shorter or longer than they really are, and things that are serious can seem funny. Larger amounts can lead to feelings of losing control, panic, or confusion. Physical effects include red eyes, dry mouth, a higher heart rate, and a feeling of hunger. Using cannabis often and for a longer time can lead to being physically dependent on it. Then, when people stop using cannabis, they can have withdrawal symptoms, which can include feeling irritable, anxious, or nauseated, not having an appetite, or not being able to sleep well.”
  • Teacher: “How can these effects of cannabis affect a person’s life?”
  • Student: “Cannabis can affect your performance at school because it makes it harder to concentrate. It can be dangerous if it’s used with alcohol because it makes the effect of the alcohol stronger and makes you more intoxicated. It can affect your ability to drive safely. It can get you into trouble with the law because it is illegal to grow, possess, or sell cannabis. If you are pregnant, it can affect your baby. But cannabis is also used for some medical purposes, such as relieving nausea and stimulating appetite in patients who have cancer or AIDS.”

C1.2 identify people and community resources (e.g., elders, family members, community agencies, churches, mosques, synagogues, public health units, telephone help lines, recreation facilities) that can provide support when dealing with choices or situations involving substance use and addictive behaviours

  • Teacher prompt: “How can calling a telephone help line provide support?”
  • Student: “Talking with someone about problems can help you look at things from different perspectives. Sometimes you need to get help to deal with stress and to cope.”

C2.4 use decision-making strategies and skills and an understanding of factors influencing drug use (e.g., personal values, peer pressure, media influences, curiosity, legal restrictions, cultural teachings) to make safe personal choices about the use of drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “How can peers influence your decisions about using drugs? How might you respond to those influences?”
  • Student: “Some peers may try to influence you to do drugs by saying it’s cool to do them, or sometimes you may just want to be part of a crowd that’s doing drugs. To avoid this kind of influence, you have to be strong as an individual, think about what you really want and what you value, and make up your own mind about things. Even if someone tells you ‘everyone is doing it’, your decisions are your own, and so are the consequences. But peers can be a positive influence too. Hanging out with friends who don’t use drugs can keep you from using drugs. It also helps to have good role models in your family or community.”

Healthy Eating

C2.1 apply their knowledge of medical, emotional, practical, and societal factors that influence eating habits and food choices

(e.g., allergies and sensitivities, likes and dislikes, dental health, food availability, media influences, cultural influences, influence of family and friends, school food and beverage policies, environmental impact, cost) to develop personal guidelines for healthier eating [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “How can a busy lifestyle lead to poor eating habits and food choices, and what can you do to eat better when you are busy?”
  • Student: “When you’re busy, it is easy to eat whatever is quick and convenient, which is not always healthy. To eat better, you have to fit your healthy eating goals into your lifestyle. If I bring a snack with me, I usually eat healthier food than if I grab something on my way. If I have to pick something up on the way, I try to make the healthiest choice from what is available. In our family, we eat meals together whenever we can. When our family eats together, we eat healthier food and have time to enjoy the food and the company.
  • Teacher prompt: “How do you handle emotional and social factors that could lead to poor eating habits or choices?”
  • Student: “I try to be aware of why I am eating. Sometimes I eat because I’m bored or lonely and have a treat to make me feel better or because the people I am with are eating. Sometimes I eat without thinking because I’m distracted. I make healthier choices when I’m feeling better. If I think about why I want to eat and whether I’m really hungry, I might decide to do something different instead of eating. I make better food choices when I’m with people who are also making healthy choices. Thinking about the situations where it’s easier to make healthy choices is useful for me. I also try to be aware of media messages about eating and know that what I am seeing and hearing may not always match up with healthy eating practices.”

C2.2 apply their recognition of internal hunger and thirst cues and their knowledge of physical factors that influence the desire to eat and drink (e.g., stage of development, growth spurts, level of physical activity, eating larger portions) to develop personal guidelines for healthier eating [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “How do you feel if you wait until you are very hungry to eat? How does your body feel when you have eaten too much?”
  • Student: “When I’m very hungry, I eat quickly and I don’t really taste my food. Sometimes I keep eating before I realize that I’m full. I end up feeling uncomfortable. I need to be aware of those things and try to eat when I’m hungry and stop when I’m full.”

C3.1 explain how healthy eating and active living work together to improve a person’s general health and well-being (e.g., both provide more energy and contribute to improved self-concept, greater resistance to disease, and better overall health; both help a person to maintain a weight that is healthy for them) and how the benefits of both can be promoted to others [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “Why is healthy eating important for active living? How does active living affect the way we eat and the way our bodies use the food we eat?”
  • Student: “Eating healthy foods gives me the nutrients I need to be energetic and active. Healthy food and physical activity are both necessary to build stronger bones and muscles. Being active also gives me more of an appetite. When I am more active, I need to eat more because I am using more energy and burning more calories.”
  • Teacher prompt: “How can you promote the benefits of healthy eating and active living at school?”
  • Student: “I can lead by example. I can be a role model for younger students at recess by having a healthy snack, like a piece of fruit, and playing an active game, like tag, instead of standing around.”

Personal Safety and Injury Prevention

C2.3 apply personal skills and interpersonal skills (e.g., self-awareness and self-management skills, including anger management; communication skills, including listening skills and assertiveness skills) to promote positive interaction and avoid or manage conflict in social situations (e.g., classroom groups, groups of friends, sports teams, school clubs) [PS, IS]

  • Teacher prompt: “If someone does something that makes you feel very angry, what can you do to manage your anger?”
  • Student: “I can take some deep breaths, walk away, and give myself some time and space to cool down. Doing something outdoors and physical, like running, swimming, playing basketball, or biking, helps me. When I am calmer, I can think about what made me angry and about whether there is anything I can do to prevent the situation from happening again.”
  • Teacher prompt: “When working in groups, what have you found helpful in making your group function well?”
  • Student: “Our group works best when we make sure everyone gets a turn to speak, when we are clear about what everyone is supposed to do, and when we listen to each other and treat each other with respect.”

C3.2 recognize the responsibilities and risks associated with caring for themselves and others (e.g., while babysitting, staying home alone, caring for pets, volunteering in the community, assisting someone with a disability, preparing meals, travelling to and from school and other locations), and demonstrate an understanding of related safety practices and appropriate procedures for responding to dangerous situations (e.g., safe practices for preparing food; responses to allergic reactions, fire, sports injuries, dental emergencies, hypothermia, bullying) [PS, IS]

  • Teacher prompt: “What should you do to protect yourself before volunteering in the community?”
  • Student: “Have a parent or caregiver check to make sure the situation is safe.”
  • Teacher: “What are some ways in which you could help someone who has a physical disability?”
  • Student: “I could ask the person if they would like help and, if so, what kind of help. I could help someone who is blind or partially sighted by walking with them as a guide. I might be able to help a person in a wheelchair transfer to a chair, if I were given instructions about how to help.”
  • Teacher: “If you are preparing a meal for yourself or others, what are some things to be aware of to stay safe?”
  • Student: “Be cautious and handle all equipment carefully when preparing food and using appliances, sharp knives, or utensils. Keep young children away from sharp knives, hot things, and other objects that could cause injury. Wash hands before and after working with food, and keep work surfaces clean.”

Grade 8: New 2015 Sex-Ed Curriculum

Here is the link to the Ontario Curriculum doc from which this section was pulled from: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/health1to8.pdf

grade8-healthy-living

Human Development and Sexual Health

C2.4 demonstrate an understanding of aspects of sexual health and safety, including contraception and condom use for pregnancy and STI prevention, the concept of consent, and matters they need to consider and skills they need to use in order to make safe and healthy decisions about sexual activity

  • (e.g., self-knowledge; abstinence; delaying first intercourse; establishing, discussing, and respecting boundaries; showing respect; need for additional information and support; safer sex and pleasure; communication, assertiveness, and refusal skills)
  • Teacher prompt: “What do teenagers need to know about contraception and safer sex in order to protect their sexual health and set appropriate personal limits?”
  • Student: “Teenagers need to know about the benefits and risks of different types of contraception.
    • Abstinence: They need to understand that the only 100 per cent sure way of not becoming pregnant or getting an STI, including HIV, is not having sexual contact.
    • Those who choose to be sexually active also need to know which contraceptive methods provide a protective barrier against disease as well as pregnancy. Condoms provide protection against both pregnancy and STIs – but to be effective, they need to be used properly and used every time.
    • Teenagers need to understand how important it is to talk with their partners about sexual health choices, consent, and keeping safe. They have to develop the skills to communicate their thoughts effectively, listen respectfully, and read body cues in these conversations. This takes practice.”

C3.3 analyse the attractions and benefits associated with being in a relationship (e.g., support, understanding, camaraderie, pleasure), as well as the benefits, risks, and drawbacks, for themselves and others, of relationships involving different degrees of sexual intimacy

  • (e.g., hurt when relationships end or trust is broken; in more sexually intimate relationships, risk of STIs and related risk to future fertility, unintended pregnancy, sexual harassment and exploitation; potential for dating violence) [IS, CT]
  • Teacher prompt: “There are pros and cons to being in a relationship, and when you are in a relationship, there are positive things and drawbacks associated with different levels of intimacy. All of them are important to think about.
    • There is a range of intimate behaviours that people can use to show caring and connection in a relationship, and different levels of risk associated with different levels of intimacy.Intimate behaviours can include holding hands, hugging, kissing, touching bodies and genitals, and engaging in sexual intercourse.
    • When considering the level of intimacy that is appropriate for their relationship, what does a couple need to think about?”
  • Student: “Both individuals need to consider their own values and beliefs and treat each other’s choices and limits with respect. If one partner chooses to abstain from a sexual activity – for example, a person might want to kiss but not want to have any genital contact – the other partner needs to respect that decision. Both partners need to have the confidence and comfort level to talk about how they can show their affection while respecting each other’s decisions.”
  • Teacher: “Being intimate with someone includes having a good understanding of the concept of consent. What are some of the important things that we need to understand about consent?”
  • Student: “Consent to one activity doesn’t imply consent to all sexual activity. It is important to ask for consent at every stage. Consent is communicated, not assumed. You can ask your partner simple questions to be sure that they want to continue: ‘Do you want to do this?’ or ‘Do you want to stop?’ A ‘no’ at any stage does not need any further explanation.”
  • Teacher: “How can being in an intimate relationship affect other relationships in your life?”
  • Student: “When you have a boyfriend or a girlfriend, sometimes friends treat you differently. You might start hanging out with different people or spending less time with some friends. You might have less time to spend with family. It’s important to be aware of what is happening, so that you can take steps to avoid neglecting other relationships that are important to you.”

Healthy Eating

C1.1 demonstrate an understanding of different types of nutrients (e.g., macronutrients and micronutrients) and their function

  • Teacher prompt: “Different kinds of nutrients are needed to achieve optimal health and prevent disease. Nutrients can be divided into two types – macronutrients and micronutrients. What are these, and why is each kind of nutrient needed for good health?”
  • Student: “Macro means big. Macronutrients include carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. They provide our bodies with energy for growth and activity. Micro means small. Micronutrients are the vitamins and minerals in our food. They help regulate body functions such as vision, healing, and muscle movement.”

C3.1 identify strategies for promoting healthy eating within the school, home, and community

(e.g., implementing school healthy food policies, launching healthy-eating campaigns, choosing healthy food items to sell in fundraising campaigns, getting involved in family meal planning, learning food preparation skills, urging local restaurants to highlight healthy food choices) [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “How could you promote healthy eating at home?”
  • Student: “I could help with meal planning, shopping, and preparation, or discuss healthy eating with my family.”
  • Teacher: “Where can you get more information about healthy eating in your community?”
  • Student: “The public health unit, registered dieticians, medical clinics, family health centres, and reputable websites are all good sources of information about healthy eating.”
  • Teacher: “What might you do to promote healthy eating at school?”
  • Student: “I could ask about healthy food policies and join clubs or groups to support healthy eating at school. I could model healthy eating. As a class, we could put together information about healthier food choices to share with younger students. Instead of selling chocolates to raise funds, we could do something healthy like have a dance-a-thon.”

C2.1 evaluate personal food choices on the basis of a variety of criteria, including serving size, nutrient content, energy value, and ingredients (e.g., fats, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals, calories, additives, allergens), preparation method, and other factors that can affect health and well-being [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “Why is paying attention to nutrients more valuable than counting calories?”
  • Student: “Paying attention to nutrients helps you focus on eating in a balanced way. Calories are only one thing to consider and, by themselves, don’t provide information about nutrition. By following Canada’s Food Guide, I can make sure that I am meeting my energy and nutrient needs. It’s important to get all of the different nutrients that my body needs. By considering nutrient content, I can make sure I get enough vitamins and minerals – for example, I need to eat orange vegetables like carrots and orange peppers to get Vitamin A. And if I make soup with milk instead of water, I’ll get more calcium and Vitamin D.”
  • Teacher: “Serving size is one thing to consider when making food choices. How many servings of fruits and vegetables are recommended for teenagers?”
  • Student: “Canada’s Food Guide recommends that teens eat seven to eight servings of vegetables and fruit per day.”
  • Teacher prompt: “If you do not eat breakfast, how does that affect how you feel during the day?”
  • Student: “I feel sluggish in the morning, and I’m starving by ten o’clock. When I’m so hungry, I’m more likely to eat less nutritious food at break.”

Personal Safety and Injury Prevention

C1.2 identify situations that could lead to injury or death (e.g., head injuries or concussions in contact sports; spinal cord injuries from falls or diving into unknown water; injuries in car accidents; mental, physical, emotional, or social harm resulting from mental health and/or addiction problems), and describe behaviours that can help to reduce risk

(e.g., wearing protective gear, especially helmets; thinking before acting; avoiding conflicts that could lead to violence; avoiding diving into unknown water; being cautious when driving or riding ATVs, tractors, boats, or snowmobiles; being aware of food safety when cooking and preparing food; using self-acceptance, coping, and help-seeking skills)

  • Teacher prompt: “Unintentional injury is a leading cause of death for children and youth in Canada. Adolescents need to be aware of the potential results associated with higher-risk activities. What are some possible consequences of injuries to the spinal cord or head?”
  • Student: “Spinal cord injuries can cause complete or partial paralysis. Severe head injuries can cause brain damage that may result in impairments of movement, sight, hearing, speech, cognitive functioning, or sensation or that may even lead to death.”

C2.2 demonstrate the ability to assess situations for potential dangers

(e.g., getting into a car with a stranger or an impaired, unlicensed, or inexperienced driver; dependencies or coercion in dating relationships; joining gangs; participating in violence; attending a party where alcohol or drugs are being used; using cosmetic procedures or treatments such as piercing, tattooing, crash diets, or tanning that involve potential health risks; exposure to infectious diseases through direct contact, sneezing, or coughing), and apply strategies for avoiding dangerous situations [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “What are some things you could do instead of getting into a car with a driver who has been drinking?”
  • Student: “I could call a family member or friend, stay over where I am, walk home with a friend if there is a safe route, or take a bus or taxi if one is available. I should have a plan and, if I can, carry money or a phone, so that I do not have to depend on someone else to get home safely.”
  • Teacher prompt: “What are some things to be aware of in a relationship to keep yourself and your partner safe?”
  • Student: “Thinking about what makes a relationship healthier is a good start. Things that could lead to danger in relationships include an uneven balance of power in the relationship and situations that involve alcohol or drugs. I can stay safer by defining my own limits, listening to my gut feelings, and letting others know what I am doing and where I am going. If something does not feel good or right, I need to have the confidence to tell the other person to stop immediately. And if someone tells me – verbally or non-verbally – to stop, I need to stop immediately.”

C3.2 analyse the impact of violent behaviours, including aggression, anger, swarming, dating violence, and gender-based or racially based violence, on the person being targeted, the perpetrator, and bystanders, and describe the role of support services in preventing violence

(e.g., help lines, school counsellors, social workers, youth programs, shelters, restorative justice programs, gay-straight student alliances) [CT]

  • Teacher prompt: “Managing emotions in heated situations is an essential skill. Consider this situation: Students are playing basketball on the playground; someone gets pushed aggressively and tempers flare. What is the impact on those playing and those watching?”
  • Student: “This situation could escalate into a fight. Someone could be hurt, and that could lead to suspension or assault charges and damage the relationships between the players on and off the court and in the classroom. It could scare or injure the people watching.”
  • Teacher prompt: “Gender-based violence includes any form of behaviour – psychological, physical, and sexual – that is based on an individual’s gender and is intended to control, humiliate, or harm the individual. When we say ‘gender-based violence’, we are often referring to violence against women and girls. Can you give me some examples?”
  • Student: “It can include physical assault in a relationship, sexual assault, or rape. It can also include things like having your rear end pinched in the hallway, having your top pulled down or lifted up, or being held down and touched.”

Substance Use, Addictions, and Related Behaviours

C1.3 identify and describe the warning signs of substance misuse or abuse, addictions, and related behaviours (e.g., changes in behaviour, gradual withdrawal from social circles, a drop in academic performance) and the consequences that can occur

(e.g., aggressive behaviours related to alcohol use that can lead to gender-based violence, dating violence, or sexual assault; financial problems resulting from online gambling; overdose as a result of misuse of prescription medications, including pain relievers; inability to make good decisions as a result of drug use; binge drinking and alcohol poisoning; injury, death, or legal charges resulting from accidents caused by impaired driving; self-harming behaviours related to mental illnesses such as depression that are exacerbated by substance abuse; fetal alcohol spectrum disorder [FASD] in children as a result of alcohol abuse by the mother during pregnancy)

C2.3 explain how stress affects mental health and emotional well-being, and demonstrate an understanding of how to use a variety of strategies for relieving stress and caring for their mental health (e.g., engaging in physical activity, listening to music, resting, meditating, talking with a trusted individual, practising smudging) [PS]

  • Teacher prompt: “Maintaining mental health and emotional well-being involves balancing the different aspects of life: the physical, intellectual, social, emotional, and spiritual. It involves the ability to think, feel, act, and interact in a way that allows you to enjoy life and cope with challenges that arise. Signs of potential mental health difficulties can include being frequently sad or depressed, anxious, or rebellious; having difficulty paying attention; having problems with eating, sleeping, or getting along at school; or being addicted to substances. Everyone is vulnerable to emotional or mental stresses. What can you do to take care of your mental health?”
  • Student: “Being aware of my feelings and monitoring them can help. So can understanding that anyone can experience mental health difficulties and that getting help makes a big difference.”
  • Teacher prompt: “Stress can be positive and negative. Stress can motivate you to get things done, but it is also connected to things over which you have less control, like illness, death, or divorce, financial concerns, or environmental issues. Identify a situation in which students often feel stressed. How can you manage stress effectively?”
  • Student: “Students often feel stressed when they have too much to do. To cope, you need to plan your time and set priorities. Do the most important things first. Include some time for taking breaks and being active. Check off what you get done as you do it. Plan with a friend, if that helps you. Stress can be managed or relieved in many ways. Some people find that taking some personal time to reflect and think and do quiet things like rest, write, read, meditate, or listen to music works best for them. Others find that being physically active or interacting with others by talking through problems is helpful. Different things work for different people, and you have to find the way that works best for you. Some cultures have special ways of relieving stress. Some First Nation people, for example, use smudging to relieve stress. This is a practice in which people fan smoke from herbs like sage or sweetgrass over their bodies to cleanse them of bad feelings and get rid of negative thoughts and energy. Afterwards, they feel renewed, physically, emotionally, mentally, and spiritually